Further Listening L1
In the world of high-fashion models, you don?t see the variations in body type that you find with random people on the street. In fact, the classic runway model is skinny, or thin. Many people are disturbed by extremely thin models in fashion shows and magazines. Some models have a height-to-weight ratio that is unhealthy. For example, a model with an unhealthy height-to-weight ratio might be around 173 centimeters tall but weigh only 49 kilograms.
The modeling business is slowly evolving, and the type of model that designers prefer is changing. In the past, fashion shows consistently featured extremely skinny models. Now, healthy-looking models are also appearing on runways. In some countries—Australia, for example—the government has even asked fashion designers and magazines to stop hiring extremely thin models for
fashion shows and photo shoots. Now when designers think about presenting their clothes in a fashion show, they often envision their clothes on people with different body types. As a result, people?s perception of fashion models and their opinion of what constitutes beauty are starting to change.
在高时装模特的世界里，你看不到的身型，你随机的人在大街上找到的变化。事实上，经典的跑道模型是骨感，还是瘦。很多人都在时装秀和杂志非常轻薄机型不安。有些型号的高度 - 重量比是不健康的。例如，不健康的高度与重量比的模型可能是围绕173厘米身高体重却只有49公斤。
Have you ever considered cosmetic surgery? The idea of changing one?s looks surgically disturbs or even frightens many people. Still, people?s feelings about cosmetic surgery have evolved over time. According the International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, more than eight million cosmetic surgeries were completed worldwide in 2009. The most popular type of cosmetic surgery was liposuction, a surgery where fat is removed from the body. Liposuction surgeries constitute about 19 percent of the total cosmetic surgeries in the world.
With modern cosmetic surgery, you envision what you want to look like and then use surgery to make it happen. For example, think about the classic beauties of the movies. Would you like Marilyn Monroe?s nose, Audrey Hepburn?s eyes, or Grace Kelly?s chin? They can be yours—for a price. The average price for liposuction is nearly $3,000 and a hair transplant may cost more than $4,500. No one ever said beauty was cheap!
Tradition and Progress
A Student Presentation
Teacher: OK, class, let?s get started with the first presentation. Sompel has prepared a short presentation about his home country of Bhutan. Go ahead, Sompel.
Sompel: Thanks. Um, hi, everybody! You know that my name is Sompel, but you may not know that I?m from Bhutan. Bhutan is a small country— high in the Himalaya Mountains—between India
and China. In our language, Bhutan is known as Druk Yul, which in English is land, land of the thunder dragon. The dragon is even displayed on our flag. For many years, my country was isolated from the world, partly due to its geography— it?s surrounded by high mountains—but also because of government policies.
Our government had always been a, an absolute monarchy, I mean, government headed by a king with unlimited power. Anyway, until very recently, Bhutan had no electricity, no cars or trucks, no telephones, and no postal service. You may be surprised to learn that in Bhutan people have only had television since 1999. It was the last country on Earth to get it. You may be wondering: Why did Bhutan reject the modern world for so long?
Well, the government was trying to protect the people from negative influences such as high crime rates, youth violence, and pollution. But the king has admitted that the policy of isolation had many negative consequences. For example, the education system definitely fell behind. Some people never learned to read and write. Then, one of our kings began opening up Bhutan to the outside world, and our current king has continued the process. There are new roads, schools, and health clinics. The king doesn?t want to open up the country all at once to the outside world and risk ruining it. He wants our country?s development to be guided by, now let me think, oh, yes, Gross National Happiness.
Teacher: Sompel, sorry to interrupt, before you continue, could you define Gross National Happiness for the class, please?
Sompel: Um, sure. How should I put it? Well, you?ve probably heard of Gross National Product, which is a phrase that refers to the dollar value of all the goods and services produced by a country
over a period of time. It?s one way of measuring a country?s success. But Gross National Happiness is different. Actually, one of our kings invented the phrase Gross National Happiness.
It?s the approach the country takes to the domestic development of Bhutan—to help make sure that the people are always happy with their lives and with the country. There are four parts, um, four “pillars”, to this approach: good government, sustainable development, environmental protection, and cultural preservation. So, for good government, the king puts the needs of the country first. In fact, even though the people love him, he gave away most of his power to the people in 2006.
That?s when the country transitioned to democracy. The king still has an important role, but he no longer has absolute power. Real power belongs to the people and the officials that we elect. Sustainable development means that we help our country grow without damaging the environment. And the pillar of environmental protection is closely related to sustainable development, too. Agriculture is very
important in Bhutan, and we are trying to find new ways to farm without hurting the environment.
Also, the government wants to keep 68 percent of the land covered in forests. Cultural preservation— the last pillar—is a challenge though. Half of Bhutan?s population is in their twenties or younger, and the government anticipates that some young people will get involved with gangs, crime, or drugs, for example. The government has banned television channels that they think are harmful. Even so, youth gangs are growing. Theft, which was not very common before, is also rising. On the other hand, there is a positive side to all of the changes.
In a mountainous country such as Bhutan, communication technologies—for instance, mobile phones and the Internet— allow people to communicate more easily than ever before. And it seems that the arts are really moving ahead. Twenty years ago Bhutan had never produced a movie, but these days we produce over 20 a year. And some movies have even displayed the difficulties that Bhutan has had with the challenges of the modern world. These types of movies are important. They can help us explore the contradictions that have come with our changing culture.
Teacher: Sompel, how do you view Bhutan?s future?
Sompel: Well I?m hopeful about Bhutan?s future, and I?m glad that the approach of Gross National Happiness is helping to make sure that we don?t lose our beautiful environment and the best parts of our ancient culture.
当民主国家转变。国王仍有一个重要的角色,但他不再有绝对的权力。真正的权力属于人民,我们选出的官员。可持续发展意味着我们帮助我们的国家发展而破坏环境。支柱的环境保护与可持续发展密切相关。农业是非常 重要的在不丹,我们正试图找到新的方法来农场不伤害环境。 同时,政府希望保持68%的土地被森林覆盖。文化保护-最后一个支柱是一个挑战。不丹人口的一半是在二十几岁或更年轻,和政府预计,一些年轻人将参与团伙,犯罪,例如,或药物。政府已经禁止电视频道,他们认为是有害的。即便如此,青年团伙正在增长。盗窃,这不是很常见,也在不断上升。另一方面,有一个积极的一面的所有更改。
不丹Sompel:我希望的未来,我很高兴,国民幸福总值的方法是帮助确保我们不失去我们美丽的环境和最好的部分-我们的古代文化。 Listening 2
A Study Group Discussion
Jose: So, are you all ready to review for the test? Matt: Yes. Amina: Sure.
Jose: What should we review first?
Amina: I think we should start with the chapter on Native Americans. There is a lot of information in that chapter. Lauren: Oh, definitely.
Jose: OK. So what do you think were the most important facts from that chapter? Matt: Well, I found the whole chapter interesting. You know, when I was growing up, we didn?t learn much about Native Americans in school.
Amina: Me, neither. I had no idea that there are more than 300 Native American reservations in the United States, did you?
Matt: Uh-huh. And then the federal government took away their land.
Amina: And they were forced to adopt American traditions and language. It must have been very hard for them.
Matt: What did Professor Hawkins say about the reservation lands? That most of them are west of the Mississippi River?
Lauren: Yeah, and he highlighted the fact that the land in a lot of reservations is really dry and not suitable for agriculture. For a long time, the people who lived there lived in bad economic conditions.
Jose: I didn?t realize that. So, when did things begin to get better?
Amina: I think Professor Hawkins said it was around 1970 when the federal government—or the Supreme Court, maybe—granted Native Americans the right to run various businesses on their reservations.
Matt: Right, and the money from their businesses has enabled them to improve their lands and undertake other big projects. The chapter mentioned a good example—the InterTribal Sinkyone Wilderness area. Amina: Where?s that place again?
Lauren: Um, it?s on the coast north of San Francisco, California.
Matt: Exactly. It was founded in 1997 by a group of Native Americans who want the land to be as wild as possible. There?s very limited access to the area. There aren?t even any roads going through it.
Amina: I wonder why.
Matt: Well, they want to save the land for traditional cultural uses. Our book said that from the perspective of the people who live there, the coast and the redwood forests are sacred. That?s where they gather food and medicine and hold their religious ceremonies.
Lauren: There?s another example I know about. A Native American group down in