broadest sense, money. Opportunities to make money make competition stressful; it is often at its most intense in the largest cities, where opportunities are greatest. Crime has always flourished in the relative anonymity (人所不知) of urban life, but today's ease of movement makes its control more difficult than ever; there is much evidence that its extent has a direct relationship to the size of communities. City dwellers (居民) may become trapped in their homes by the fear of crime around them. As defense against these developments, city dwellers tend to use various strategies to try and reduce the pressures upon themselves: contacts with other people are generally made brief and impersonal; doors are kept locked; telephone numbers may be ex-directory (未列入电话号码簿的); journeys outside the home are usually hurried, rather than a source of pleasure.
Inner areas of cities tend to be abandoned by the more successful and left to those who have done badly in the competitive struggle or who belong to minority groups; these people are then
geographically trapped because so much economic activity has migrated to the suburbs and beyond.
Present-day architecture and planning have enormously worsened the human problems of urban life. Old-established neighborhoods have been ruthlessly (无情地) swept away, by both public and private organizations, usually to be replaced by huge, ugly, impersonal structures. People have been forced to leave their familiar homes, usually to be re-housed in tower blocks which are inconvenient, and fail to provide any setting for human interaction or support. The destruction of established social structures is the worse possible approach to the difficulties of living in a town or city. Instead, every effort should be made to conserve (保护) the human scale of the environment, and to retain familiar landmarks. 6.
According to the author, living in a city causes stress because there are so many people who are ________. A. anxious to succeed
B. in need of help
C. naturally aggressive
D. likely to commit crime
7. The author thinks that crime is increasing in cities because ________.
A. people do not communicate with their neighbors
B. criminals are difficult to trace in large populations
C. people feel anonymous there
D. the trappings of success are attractive to criminals
8. The majority of people who live in inner cities tend to quit from the inner areas because they ________. A. dislike having to travel far to work
B. have been forced by circumstances to do so
C. don't like the idea of living in the suburbs
D. have turned against society
Architectural changes have affected city life by ________. A. scattering long-established communities B. giving the individual a say in planning
C. forcing people to live on top of each other
D. making people move to the suburbs
10. The author's general argument is that urban life would be
improved by ________.
A. moving people out of tower blocks
B. restoring old buildings
C. building community centers
D. preserving existing social systems
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the same passage or dialog.
My love of nature goes right back to my childhood, to the times when I stayed on my grandparent's farm in Suffolk. I think it was my grandmother who encouraged me more than anyone: she taught me the names of wildflowers and got me interested in looking at the countryside, so it seemed obvious to go on to do Zoology at university.
I didn't get my first camera until after I'd graduated, when I was due to go diving in Norway and needed a method of recording the sea creatures I would find there. My father didn't know anything about photography, but he bought me an Exacta, which was really quite a good camera for the time, and I went off to take my first pictures of sea anemones (海葵) and starfish (海星). I became keen very quickly, and I learnt how to develop and print.
I've tried from the beginning to produce pictures which are always biologically correct. There are people who will alter things
deliberately: you don't pick up sea creatures from the middle of the shore and take them down to attractive pools at the bottom of the shore without knowing you're doing it.
There can be a lot of ignorance in people's behaviour towards wild animals and it's a problem that more and more people are going to wild places: while some animals may get used to cars, they won't get used to people suddenly rushing up to them. The sheer pressure of people, coupled with the fact there are increasingly few places where no-one else has photographed, means that over the years, life has become much more difficult for the professional wildlife photographers.
Nevertheless (然而), wildlife photographers play a very important part in educating people about what is out there and what needs conserving. Although photography can be an enjoyable pastime (消遣), as it is to many people, it is also something that plays a very important part in educating young and old alike.
11. The author decided to go to university and study Zoology
A. she wanted to improve her life in the countryside
B. she was persuaded to do so by her grandmother
C. she was keen on the natural world
D. she wanted to stop moving around all the time
12. How is the author different from some of the other wildlife
photographers she meets?
A. She tries to make her photographs as attractive as possible.
B. She takes photographs which record accurate natural conditions.
C. She likes to photograph plants as well as wildlife.
D. She knows the best places to find wildlife.
13. The author now finds it more difficult to photograph wild
animals because ________. A. there are fewer of them
B. they have become more nervous of people
C. it is harder to find suitable places
D. they have become frightened of cars
14. According to the author, wildlife photography is important
because it can make people realize that ________. A. photography is an enjoyable hobby
B. we learn little about wildlife at school
C. it is worthwhile visiting the countryside
D. it is important to look after wild animals
15. Which of the following describes the author?
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the same passage or dialog. Real policemen, both in Britain and the United States, hardly recognize any resemblance (相似) between their lives and what they see on TV-if they are even able to watch TV.
The first difference is that in real life a policeman has been trained in criminal law. He has to know exactly what actions are crimes and what evidence can be used to prove them in court.
He will spend most of his working life typing millions of words on thousands of forms about hundreds of sad, unimportant people who are guilty-or not-of stupid, petty (不重要的) crimes.
Most television crime drama is about finding the criminal: as soon as he's arrested, the story is over. In real life, finding criminals is seldom much of a problem. Except in very serious cases like murders and terrorist attacks-where failure to produce results reflects on the standing of the police-little effort is spent on searching.
A third big difference is between the drama detective and the real life ones. Detectives are subject to two opposing pressures: first, as members of a police force they always have to behave with absolute legality (合法); secondly, as expensive public servants they have to get results. They can hardly ever do both. Most of the time some of them have to break the rules in small ways. If the detective has to deceive the world, the world often deceives him. Hardly anyone he meets tells him the truth. And this separation the detective feels between himself and the rest of the world is deepened by the simplemindedness-as he sees it-of citizens, social workers, doctors, law-makers, and judges, who, instead of stamping out crime, punish the criminals less severely in the hope that this will make them reform. The result, detectives feel, is that nine-tenths of their time is spent re-catching people who should have stayed behind bars. This makes them rather cynical. 16. It is essential for a policeman to be trained in criminal law
A. so that he can catch criminals in the streets