Presenter: With me today is Tara Black, author of The History of Money. Tara, before we had
money, we exchange things, didn’t we?
Tara: Yes, that’s right. In stone age, people exchanged things like salt or cattle. But of
course the problem is that the things you exchange don’t last. And so money was introduced as a more permanent way of paying for things. And of course, money’s also a lot easier to use. You can carry it around you very easier.
Presenter: So when did people start changing from exchanging goods to paying for things with
Tara: Well, as far back as 5000BC, people in China and the Middle East were
exchanging metals for goods.
Presenter: As long ago as that?
Tara: Yes. The first silver ingots（金银铸块、锭）… Presenter: Silver bars?
Tara: Yes, they appeared around 2200BC in Europe and were used as currency. Coins
then appeared in Lydia around 700BC.
Tara: Lydia is a country in what’s now known as Turkey. Then other countries followed
their example and started producing them. A Greek coin, the drachma（德拉克马，希腊原货币单位）, became the standard form of money in large parts of Asia and Europe.
Presenter: And the first paper money?
Tara: Paper money was first used in china around 960AD. Presenter: It’s always China, isn’t it? Tara: Quite often, yes.
Presenter: So as well as being long-lasting and convenient, a big advantage of coins and paper
money is that they have a standard value.
Tara: Yes, they’re known as representative money. Every coin or paper has a certain
value that doesn’t depend on the actual value of the paper or metal.
Presenter: And how did banks started?
Tara: Both the early Persians and the Ancient Egyptians had store houses where they kept
their country’s grain- we’re talking about 3000BC. They exchanged the grain for promissory notes. This meant a written promise to pay back a sun of money to someone. Really, these storehouses can be seen as the first banks.
Presenter: I see.
Tara: So over a great many centuries banks became places where money was deposited and
lent. And they guaranteed that a note of a certain amount of silver.
Presenter: And then there was the gold standard, wasn’t there?
Tara: Yes, the golden standard was applied all over the world from 1870 to 1915 but it
was slowly abandoned.
Presenter: When did it became easier…
塔拉:纸币首次使用在中国是公元960年。 推荐者:它总是中国,不是吗? 塔拉:通常,是的。
Speaker 1: As a student, you are probably living on a very limited amount of money, so here are
our top useful tips to help you make your money go further.
Speaker 2: One. Say no to credit cards! Banks may encourage you to use their cheap credit
card facilities where you buy now and pay later. It looks great but it’s easy to get into debt. If you do have a credit card, hide it and get it out only when you absolutely have to.
Speaker 1: Two. Look for bargains! You can look great in second-hand shops and charity shops.
Learn to love eBay and look there first rather than in shop windows. It could make all difference.
Speaker 2: Three. Stick to a budget! Work out exactly how much you have coming in each
month and your necessary expenditure（花费、开销）-what you absolutely must spend, like rent, bill and food before you look at your disposable（可支配的）income- this means what you’ve got left for any extras and treats. Think first – do you really need that pair of shoes and can you afford to go to a restaurant this month?
Speaker 1: Four. Give up your bad habits(or at least keep them under control)! If you smoke,
buy expensive coffee or regularly eat out, giving it up or at least reducing the amount you spend on these things will save you more than you’d think.
Speaker 2: Five. Find ways to save money! If you got to the supermarket at the end of the day
you may find some fresh produce like meat and vegetables marked down in price. If you go to afternoon shows at the cinema or theatre you will save money while still going out and enjoy yourself.
Speaker 1: Six. Beg and borrow before you buy! If you need a book for an essay, has anyone
else got it? Try and borrow it rather than buy it.
Speaker 2: Seven. Plan ahead! A lot of unnecessary spending occurs because people fail to plan
ahead and have to spend a lot of money at the last moment. Check your diary. When you need those books .for your essay to write in June? Can you borrow them now? Or
you need to make a trip. Can you buy the tickets in advance rather than at the last moment at a higher price?
Speaker 1: The economical habit you develop now while you’re at college will help you in later
life. Don’t think ‘I’m poor and miserable’ but instead tell yourself ‘I’m developing a highly important like skill.’ And it’s absolutely true.
……When I go out, I go fast, it feels good. Even if for a few moments, it, it’s, it’s just the most
exhilarating（使人异常兴奋的）, most wonderful, most magical things that can happen. And I know that I’m, I’m young again and it’s worth every day. It keeps me happy for a month.
Unit5 Outside View
In South Korea, women are participating more in the economic and political sectors than they were a decade ago. But career aspirations for female students in South Korea still tend to be based on the traditional division of gender roles. They are accustomed to thinking of such jobs as teaching and nursing, what their male counterparts aim to become scientists and judges. Many of these young women are aware that if they want to be independent they need to train so they can have their own source of income. In the previous generation, women did not have the right to speak, because they did not have their own financial support. Therefore, our generation of women must work to be financially independent. The growth in the number of women who work has caused the typical South Korean household to change. For example, there are more women living alone. This is because they can make their own money rather than depend on a man to support them. There has also been a rapid rise in the number of families in which both parents work. Married women increasingly want to participate in society but they need to balance family life and work. After marriage, we all struggle with how to take care of our children and work. The introduction of day care centers at some work places, such as the Chohung bank, has helped to make it possible for mothers to work. Whilst these women are at work, their children are in the day care center. There they are usually very well looked after, receiving a balanced diet, playing lots of games and doing plenty of exercise. Day care centers are increasingly popular all across the world because they enable parents to work. Women employees at Chohung Bank find it a big help, although the system is far from perfect. So far, my children have been well taken care of by our day care center. However, it will be difficult when my children go to elementary school because I often have to work late. Who will take care of them? Our family recently decided to live together with our grandparents who might be able to take care of my children. Mothers also face other problems when they go to work. Women have traditionally been responsible for raising their children and often feel a strong sense of guilt when they put their children into day care. Some worry that it will have a negative impact on their children and that they may fail as a parent. On top of this, South Korean women often end up being less well paid than men with the same education. Korean women’s status in the labor market has not been much improved in spite of a continuing rise in their presence in the labor force and the level of their education. The majority of working women are still crowded in low wage and low status jobs many of which are found in the secondary market. So there are still lots of issues facing women going to work--- they are still having to choose between their families and their careers. What can be done to ensure that women are rewarded for their valuable contribution to the working world?